Software is categorized as follows
Tails - Tails is a Debian based live CD/USB with the goal of providing complete Internet anonymity for the user.
Qubes - Qubes is a Fedora OS that uses tor protocols and a container system to keep your system secure.
Ice-Cat GNUzilla is the GNU version of the Mozilla suite, and GNU IceCat is the GNU version of the Firefox browser. Making it a more secure option.
Tor Browser Tor is similar but different to a normal browser. It redirects your traffic through three layers of servers, like an onion, so that it is extremely difficult to tell where in the world you are when you are accessing something online. Some websites are only accessible through Tor.
uBlock Origin A FOSS adblocker. Developed by the Electronic Frontier Foundation, who fight for your online privacy rights.
uMatrix Developed by the Electronic Frontier Foundation. uMatrix divides all requests into eight categories, Cookies, CSS, image, media, scripts, XHR, frames, and other. Then again into first and third party. uMatrix allows you to see requests made and gives you the option of disabling them globally.
Decentraleyes Prevents a lot of requests from reaching networks like Google Hosted Libraries, and serves local files to keep sites from breaking.
HTTPS Everywhere This browser add-on ensures HTTPS is used wherever it's available according to a listed directory in the add-on.
Smart HTTPS Similar to HTTPS Everywhere, it will not only force requests through HTTPS but also amend its own white-list to request HTTPS to sites that do not have HTTPS available.
Proton Mail A Swiss email service that encrypts your inbox so that governments, hackers and not even Proton Mail themselves can see it, steal it, use it to profile you or sell it to others. The overall security of protonmail however is debated often when it comes to users however as many see it as a potential government honey-pot
Tutanota Similar to Proton Mail with a few additional features with multiple authentication options and despite the encryption, you can still search your emails by body text. This is my preferred email provider.
Guerrilla Mail Guerrilla Mail gives you a disposable email address. You can give your email address to whomever you don't trust. All incoming email is deleted after 1 hour. Great for quick communication.
Signal Signal is an SMS alternative you can communicate instantly while avoiding SMS fees, create groups so that you can chat in real time with all your friends at once, and share media or attachments all with complete privacy.
Matrix While not a dedicated program but protocol built with a collection of programs and software you can use to message securely.