This is a look into the tragic history of political parties in the United States. From this I would like to point out that the Founding Fathers did not want or plan for political parties in the Representative Democracy system they have made. This is made a point in the Response to the Anti-Federalist papers made by Hamilton and Madison in the Federalist Papers.
But this did not last long, almost immediately after its inception, political parties began to spring up. Specifically surrounding both Hamilton as a Federalist and Madison with Jefferson in the Democratic Republican party. In regards to the assortment of parties, They will be sorted by inception date, name, then Left to Right Leaning. Where Left will be Traditional Liberal Ideologies and Right being Traditional Conservative Ideologies. I will also only be highlighting the parties than had a direct influence in the United States Democratic System, so parties like the Labor Movements of 1919 and Social Alternative Parties that garnered less the .01% percent of votes in any election since the parties inception. This is a matter of simplicity in order to rid ourselves of the constant fracturing and fragmenting of the 2 Primary parties that exist in the United States, with minor sliding to Independent Parties.
From what we can see here throughout the History of the United States there has been significant fracturing of the 2 primary parties, which are the Democrats and the Republicans, starting at about the early 1900s and growing drastically from there. This does bring up some issues that I am going to address. First is the radicalization of American politics, we can see this emerging during WWII and maintaining a continuous trend to more radicalization, where all parties and their branches moving father from the Center to the Far-Left or Far-Right. Which this does cause further turmoil and fracturing among the Democratic Process and only inhibits proper Politic and debate where a series of individuals can wage an individual opinion and ideology, having a following during that debate or election season, then the process resets after each election season. But this is not the case as this leads to my second issue with the Political Party Problem, the fracturing and ideologies continue to gain momentum along with political swinging which you will see in the following...
From this time line we can see large chunks of the early United States election cycles were controlled by one party or another for 4-8 years at a time until 1840. From that point onward we immediately see the 2 party system emerge and stay in a constant state of flux, going back and forth every 4 years. This only stops during major war time where solidarity in the United States is the highest, like during WWI (1914-1918) and WWII (1939-1945) but returns back to a party swing during the subsequent election season. This Presents several issues in itself, each on a differing side to the Party Problem, first is the rate of swing from right to left makes it impossible for Independent parties to emerge as a possible electoral candidate. But second causes the issue where no issues can be solved within a reasonable time during a presidential office as any policies passed can be changed in by the following office holder, and lastly the trend of holding an office in a single party is only during war time, which as a result incentives an office holder to maintain a war time status during their session.
Solution... While the party system is in my opinion the ultimate failure of the United States Democratic system, I would poise the solution to the Party Problem. The solution I bring would bring up would be a higher emphasis on education on the political process as well as a reinforcement of Citizen rights to Civil Disobedience where as if a law or parcel would pass in the system that an Individual would disagree or take offense to, the Citizen would take the moral ground to Disobey the law or parcel in a peaceful manor. While this would be against the law, the Citizen would have natural protections against abuse of and by the System the individual is resisting.